The invention of the computer was two thousand years ago today. Then the machine started as Access. Abacus is a rack made of wood, with two wires attached. Both telegraphs are located in parallel to each other. A gauge shaped object was placed on the fence. By rotating that gem, a solution to any of the arithmetic questions was obtained. Secondly, there was an astrobleme that used to be used to interconnect it.
Blaze Pascal invented the first digital computer in 1642 AD. There was a number that had to be dialled. But it could only work to add. However, in 1671 AD, the computer was invented which was finally completed in 1694. The credit of this invention goes to Gottfried Wilhelm von Leibniz. Leibniz developed the stepped gear mechanism for the beginning of the summon, which is still used today.
Details of the development of computer year after year are being given :
- Abacus has invented in Babylonian 3000 BC.
- In 1800 BC, the Babylonian people invented an algorithm for the number problem.
- In 500 BC, the Egyptians made Manica and Wire Abacus.
- In 200 BC, the use of computing trays began in Japan.
- In 1000 BC, new Abacus was brought by Alicia’s Gerbert or the Pope.
- In 1617 AD, the inventor of Scotland, John Napier, told by the subtraction of the system of multiplication by dividing and multiplying by adding.
- William Outread in 1622 AD developed the slide rule.
- The first quaternary calculator-clock was invented by Wilhelm Sykard of Heidelberg University in 1624.
- In 1642 AD, the first numerical calculation machine was created by Blaze Pascal of Paris.
- Benjamin Franklin in 1780 AD discovered electricity.
- In 1876, Alexander Graham Bell invented the telephone.
- William Barang developed the commercial mechanical calculation machine in 1886, which was successful.
- In 1889, Holierth Tabulating Machine issued patents.
- In 1896, Holryth built a sorting machine through the tabulating machine company (which they established itself).
- Computer Tabulating Recording Company emerged after the merger of the tabulating company in 1911 AD.
- It was founded by the merger of Computing Scale Company and International Time Recording Company.
- In 1921, Karel Chepak used the Rosem Universal Robot. Use of the Czech word robot to analyse mechanical workers.
- In 1925 AD, the differential scale analyser (Differential Analyzer) Large Scale Analog Calculator was created by Vannevar Bush in MIT.
- In 1927, the use of first public radio telephones began between London and New York.
- In 1931 E. Kornard Juice of Germany created Z-1 or the first calculator.
- In 1936, Angrez Allen M. Turning created a machine that was capable of calculating a function/function calculable.
- George Steeb made the first quadratic calculator in Bell Telephone Laboratory in 1937.
- In 1938, Hewlett Packard Company created an electrical appliance.
- Colourful broadcasting started in television in 1940 AD
In the year 1940, the laboratory started the first terminal by building the first terminal.
- In the year 1944 AD, the Colossus Mark 2 was formed in England.
- Associations for Computing Machinery was formed in 1947.
- IBM in 1948 604 electronic calculators issued by
The first joint computer conference was organised in 1951 AD.
- Remington Rand developed the first high-speed printer for United in 1953.
- Japan N.C. in 1958 In the first electronic computer NEC-1101 and 1102 were developed.
- In 1960, the first removable disk was brought.
- In 1958 AD, the first mini-computer PDP-8 came from Digital Equipment Company.
- Digital Equipments Company, 16-byte mini-computer PDP in 1969 -11 / 20 was prepared.
- Intel introduced 8-by-bit microprocessor in 1972
- In 1976, Perkin Elmer and Gould SEL launched the super minicomputer market.
- The Apple-2 personal computer was brought to the establishment of Apple Computer in 1977.
- In 1980 AD, the total number of computers reached up to 10 million in the United States.
- The total number of computers reached 1 million in the United States in 1983.
- In 1983, the total number of computers in the United States crossed the amount of 30 million.
- Windows operating system was launched for Microsoft by Microsoft in 1992.
- Steps of computer development
- Father of computer
Charles Babbage was an English mathematician and researcher who, in 1800, believed that he could make a machine like a computer. In 1827, he continued working on his differential engine for years after the British government agreed to fund his project. It was a machine used to make the table. Although they had even made prototypes (sampling) of its parts, but eventually left the scheme in the middle. He completed an analytical engine ( analytical engine) in 1854 ), But left him in the middle. However, his proposal to make a mechanical computer has given an idea of the search for modern equipment. Because of his success, he is also called the father of the network.
The history of computer development is often associated with different generations of computerised devices. Every age of computers shows an ego-technical development that changes the way computer works. The more small and cheaper, more powerful and more effective and dependable tools started to become more frequent. Here the information about various steps of the development of the computer is being given, which is why today the existing equipment and the ones we are using.
(A) First Generation (1940-1956) : Vacuum Tubes
In the first round of the computer used the magnetic and circular drum for memory/memory, and because of this, they were huge and took the place of the whole room. It used to be quite expensive in use and was quiet.
Gaining more power, generating extreme heat and sometimes even for the same reason was also damaged. The first generation computers were mainly dependent on the machine language for operation and could solve the same problem at a time. Their input was based on punched cards and paper tape while the output was only visible on printouts.
Univac (Universal Automatic Computer) and ENIAC (Electronic Numerical Integrator and Computer) are examples of first-generation computer equipment. Univac was the first commercial computer to be given to the United States Census Bureau in 1951.
Vacuum tube circuit
(B) Second generation (1956-1963) : transistor
Transistor began to be replaced in place of the vacuum tube, and with this, the second generation computers came into existence. The transistor was discovered in 1947, but it was widely used in the late 1950s. It was quite sophisticated with the vacuum tube, which made the computer.
Small, fast, cheap, better use of energy and more reliable than first-generation computers. Although the transistors also produced enough heat, causing the equipment to be damaged, it was much better than the vacuum tube. Second-generation computers also rely on print-out for input and punch cards for input.
Second-generation computers used symbolic or assembly language in comparison to cryptic binary machine language. This allowed the programmer to give special instructions in the Word. High-level programming language similar time were discovered, such as COBOL ( COBOL ) and Fortran ( FORTRAN also found). These were the first computers, which kept their instructions in their memory (memory), which started using magnetic core technology instead of magnetic drums. The first computers of this generation were developed for the nuclear power industry.
Third Generation ( 1964-1971): Integrated Circuits
The most prominent feature of third-generation computers was the use of integrated circuits. The transistor was reduced to a silicon chip, which was called a semiconductor. It extraordinarily increased the capability and speed of the computer.
Instead of punch cards and printouts, users were introduced to the monitor and keyboard in third-generation computers. Also, he also got an answer from an operating system. With this, many different applications (apps) can be created with a central program (Central Program) at the same time. For the first time, the computer could reach a large segment because it was much smaller and cheaper than before.
Fourth Generation ( 1971 – present ) : Micro
Along with microprocessors, the fourth generation computers came into existence, in which thousands of integrated circuits (integrated circuits) were built in a silicon chip. Where the first generation computers used to replace the whole room, computers could now be in the palm. The Intel 4004 chip, discovered in 1971, had all the necessary components (network) of the computer-from central processing unit and memory to input, output control-on only one chip.
In 1981, IBM came with its first computer. It was for home users. In 1984, Apple made Mackintosh. Microprocessors went from desktop computers to many areas of life and started using microprocessors in day-to-day products.
These small computers are very powerful. They can combine the network today which will eventually work in the development of the Internet. Fourth generation computers also developed mouse, GUI and hand-held devices.
Fifth generation (present and forth): artificial intelligence
Fifth generation computer equipment based on artificial intelligence is still in the development process, although some devices such as voice recognition (voice recognition) are being used today. Superconductor and parallel processing are helping to convert artificial intelligence into reality. Quantum computation and molecular and nanotechnology will completely change the face of the computer over the coming years. The goal of a fifth generation computer is to develop tools that can be operated with natural language input and it is worth self-organisation and learning.
Types of computers
(A) Personal computer (PC)
Mainframes: Computers with large hard drives, much more memory capacity (RAM), multiple CPUs compute different types, depending on the speed and memory usage of the processor.
Super Computer: This computer is equipped with lots of processors, ALU, memory (RAM) and so on. It is commonly used in scientific research. It has a capacity of 14,000 microcomputers.
Laptop: It’s a compact computer that works like a personal computer but is a hand-picked computer. It is of notebook size.
Micro Computer: This is a tiny computer, which is used in the camera. The microcomputer is a computer that has a microprocessor in its central processing unit. Its second feature is that it takes a much smaller space compared to the micro-frame and minicomputer.
Personal Digital Assistant or Palmtop (PDA)
It is a handheld computer, but it has been changing for the past several years. PDA is also known as a small computer or palmtop. There are many uses of this – use as counting, clock and calendar, access to the Internet, sending or receiving e-mails, video recording, typewriting and word processing, as an address book, creating and writing spreadsheets, bar Code scanning, used as radio or stereo, computer games, recording of the survey response and global positioning system (GPS) etc. The new palmtop also comes with the colour screen and audio capability, mobile phone use (smartphone), web browser or portable media player. Many PDAs can also access the internet, using Wi-Fi access to intranets or extranets or wireless wide-area networks. In many palmtops, touch screen technology is also used.
Analog: old, impractical computer These calculate physical quantities, such as an ammeter, voltage meter etc. Analog computer is an instrument that is continuously computing using physical changes that are analogue to real objects. Analog computer can use a continuous rotation of gears for example, or computation with the help of mechanical or electromechanical parts of the angular momentum (angular momentum).
Digital: They use binary digits for processing, such as personal computers.
Computers that store data in terms of digits (digit) and processing phase frames (Descript Steps) from one stage to the other. The state of a digital computer is typically used by binary digits (binary digits) which can take the form of the presence or absence of any magnetic marker of the storage medium, on-off switch or relay. In a digital computer, the alphabet, digits and the whole article also appear digitally. Unlike analogue computers, this digital computer can increase frequency by taking a large number of figures to show any condition, even in a smaller way, in a sequential manner.
Hybrid: These computers contain the most beautiful features of digital and analogue networks. This is a computer that has the characteristics of both types (digital and analogue) computers. It’s digital part usually plays the role of the controller and provides logical operations (digital operations), whereas it’s analogue part usually makes differential calculations.